Tag Archives: Music

Erasmus+ Mobility visit to University of Wuppertal – Kirsty Devaney

Kirsty Devaney reflects on her Erasmus+ visit to the University of Wuppertal earlier this year. 

On the 12th-14th May I was able to visit the beautiful location of University of Wuppertal in Germany as part of Erasmus+ :

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This visit was part of an ongoing research relationship regarding composing in music education with lecturer Annette Ziegenmeyer.

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Campaigning for Creativity and Composing

Unlike in England where composing in classroom plays a fundamental role in secondary education:

‘Considerably more time is spent on composing than other musical processes within a typical Key Stage 4 music classroom’ (Savage and Fautley, 2011: 142)

School composing in Germany is not a practice that is imbedded. Annette mentioned that the influence of the likes of John Paynter (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paynter_(composer)) and other composer-educators, did not take place in Germany. Instead music lessons focus on the “replication” and “reproduction” of other music, rather than students creating their own music. Annette, who was a music teacher and composes herself, felt that this lack of creative music making was missing in music education and since started to campaign for composing in schools.

Earlier this academic year, Annette came to Birmingham to investigate how music education, and composing, is done in England:

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I organised observations in a range of schools, including whole class instrumental lessons, to meet with music educators at the university and the Conservatoire, and to discuss her research to others in the BCU music education research community. She was keen that I come and visit her in Germany to see how music education differs and to share my thoughts and research to her colleagues and students.

During my short visit I was able to visit a secondary school and observe music taking place in the classroom. Unlike when Annette visited and she had asked to see composing taking place, Annette warned me that due to composing being so rare, it was unlikely I would be able to observe any composing. The lesson I observed focused on learning to play a popular song using instruments. The informal approach felt it had roots in the Musical Futures (https://www.musicalfutures.org/) movement: the students had selected the song, they worked in friendship groups and the teacher allowed them to just come into the lesson and start practicing and playing rather than outlining the key objectives. Although an interesting approach, students were not able to deviate away from what was being taught. Some of the boys, who were clearly disengaged playing pitched percussion, seemed to be bored playing straight crotchet beats and when they varied the rhythms were told they were getting in wrong.

“Baggage”

I gave a lecture to trainee music teachers on composing, getting them to reflect on what composing means and how to support it in the classroom:

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Annette had mentioned that the word “composing” was very rarely used, if at all in music education due to the historical connotations and “baggage” of the word. Discussions were engaging and thought provoking with one student asking if Ed Sheeran was a composer. It was clear that this more open and inclusive approach to composing being possible for all students, and being about making decisions and being creative was new to them. Similarly, perceptions and beliefs about composers were discussed in my PhD thesis, concluding that 3 main beliefs were present in students and teachers. These were the belief that the word “composer” worked only in relation to composing as:

  1. A profession (earning money)
  2. An out-dated practice
  3. A creative genius

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Comparison Study

The rest of the visit involved meetings and discussions about future research. The first direction Annette was keen to pursue was to conduct a survey to investigate current composing provision and teaching in schools.  After showing her my own composing survey (https://www.ism.org/advice/research-into-teachers-attitudes-towards-a-level-composing-released) , and the survey conducted by Savage and Fautley (2011), we identified three main research questions:

  1. How much composing is taking place in schools?
  2. What is taking place?
  3. What beliefs and perceptions are held by teachers regarding composing, composers and composing teaching?

Some of these questions have been asked in the England through research, but for Germany Annette felt this was a first. In conducting the survey we hope to be able to do a comparison study and present initial findings together at European and International conferences in the future. Developing good practice and resources for music teachers is another main stage for Annette and her team.  Overall there was a sense that there was a huge amount of work to be done to promote composing as an inclusive and beneficial aspect of a well rounded and creative musical education, but both Annette and others on her team seem passionate and being at the start of this creative revolution is a very exciting position to be in!

References:

Fautley, M. and Savage, J. (2011b) ‘The organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4 in English secondary schools’, British Journal of Music Education, 28(2), pp. 135-157.

Devaney, K. and Fautley, M. (2015) Music A level Assessment of Composing – Research into teacher attitudes: Incorporated Society of Musicans. Available at: http://www.ism.org/blog/music-a-level-composing-research-into-teacher-attitudes (Accessed: 18th May 2017).

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Promoting children’s well-being, right to make choices and engage in playful activities in restricted environments through music and singing

Dr. Carolyn Blackburn, Senior Research Fellow at CSPACE, is currently leading a project funded by Froebel Trust (January 2017 – May 2018) to look at the Singing Medicine at Birmingham Children’s Hospital. In this post, she shares some updates from her findings:

The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Arts, Health and Wellbeing and Fancourt (2017) highlight a wide range of possible ways in which the arts can support health and wellbeing of individuals, communities and societies in the context of contemporary models of health.  This includes helping with specific identified conditions as well as promoting well-being, healthy behaviours and social engagement.  Included in the broad definition of arts are signing and musical activities as well as performing arts such dance, drama, juggling and visual art such as painting and drawing.  Associated with the concept of social prescribing (which seeks to address health and wellbeing from a holistic perspective using a range of non-clinical interventions), participatory arts projects are growing in number in the UK (APPG on Arts, Health and Wellbeing 2017).

More and more people now appreciate that arts and culture can play a valuable part in helping tackle some of the most challenging social and health conditions. Active participation in the visual and performing arts, music and dance can help people facing a lonely old age, depression or mental illness; it can help maintain levels of independence and curiosity and, let’s not forget, it can bring great joy and so improve the quality of life for those engaged“. (Lord Bichard of Nailsworth, 2016 cited in APPG on Arts, Health and Wellbeing, 2017b: 47)

In relation to the benefits of participating in music and singing in health settings, the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Arts, Health and Wellbeing (2017) revealed that:

Participatory arts in children’s hospitals provide a pleasurable diversion from the anxiety of treatment and the boredom of long waiting times.”

In terms of children’s rights to engage in playful activities and make choices, the United Conventions on the Rights of the Child Article 31 states that Every child has the right to relax, play and take part in a wide range of cultural and artistic activities and Article 12 states that every child has the right to express their views, feelings and wishes in all matters affecting them, and to have their views considered and taken seriously. This right applies at all times, for example during immigration proceedings, housing decisions or the child’s day-to-day home life.

Given the evidence reported above, I have been working on a timely project which focuses one aspect of music and singing in healthcare settings; the benefits of musical games for children with a range of conditions at a Birmingham Children’s Hospital (BCH) in terms of their right to makes choices, engage in playful activities and their overall wellbeing with Ex Cathedra’s Singing Medicine service.

The project has been running since January 2017, and data collection involves interviews with parents and health professionals as well as non-participant researcher observations of singing medicine sessions carried out by myself.

Themes that arose from interviews included:

  • The important characteristics of the Singing Medicine Vocal Tutors;
  • Contribution to children’s emotions;
  • Contribution to child/family experiences of hospital;
  • Contribution to children’s development and learning (including neurodevelopment);
  • Spiritual and moral dimensions;
  • Contribution to medical care (including contribution to the wellbeing of health professionals);
  • Contextual aspects of the service; and
  • Contribution to family life, patterns and structures.
Participants commented that:
“Enables children to take a positive memory away from hospital, rather than remembering only that they had blood samples taken, they might also remember the pleasant experience from the Singing Medicine people”
“Some of the children have unpleasant, intrusive and painful medical interventions for example haemodialysis – the Singing Medicine programme is something they choose rather than something they have to do or have to have done to them”

The potential contribution to children’s neurodevelopment is an important finding since it was mentioned by participants that neurodevelopment is an aspect of healthcare provision often omitted due to the understandable need to focus on acute care and patient survival and recovery.

From observations there was evidence of:

  • Choices for children;
  • Following children’s lead;
  • Facilitating medical care;
  • Building memorable moments for families; and
  • Focussing on children’s holistic development.

These findings demonstrate the benefit of participating in the service for children, their family members and health professionals supporting them. The findings can be considered in light of significant evidence from the APPGAHW on the benefits of the arts more broadly and singing and music specifically in health settings, and also in light of the United Conventions on the Rights of the Child.

Myself and several of the Vocal Tutors from Ex Cathedra presented a workshop at the Annual Health Research Conference at BCU ‘Creative Caring’ in January of this year. The session was well received by colleagues in Health and suggestion was made to embedded the research findings within many of programmes in Nursing. The project’s approach to research with the Vocal Tutors (rather than no them) was commented.

In February, I will also presenting at the BECERA annual conference ‘Creativity and Critical Thinking in the Early Years’.

This project will finish in May 2018. A final project report will become available later in the Spring.

There is a current petition for ‘Singing on Prescription’ to be adopted by the NHS. please sign if you have time.

References:

  • APPG on Arts, Health and Wellbeing (2017a) Policy Briefing   Arts Engagement and Wellbeing July 2017 [Online http://www.artshealthandwellbeing.org.uk/appg-inquiry/ accessed 11.12.17]
  • All-Party Parliamentary Group on Arts, Health and Wellbeing (2017b) Creative Health: The Arts for Health and Wellbeing [Online http://www.artshealthandwellbeing.org.uk/ accessed 12.12.17]
  • Fancourt, D. (2017) Arts in Health, Designing and Researching Interventions. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Carolyn

Carolyn has worked in childcare and education for nearly 20 years mainly in primary education and early years.  She has established a reputation for supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities. She led a number of national and international projects investigating children, family and education. Her recent work include include a project about young children’s musical interactions called Communicative Musicality and an international project that seeks to explore relationship-based early intervention services for young children with complex needs in collaboration with the world-leading Champion Centre.

Carolyn is particularly interested in interdisciplinary research and the ways in which researchers from diverse disciplines can seek a shared understanding of child and family work so that a richer, more diverse research culture can be envisioned. Carolyn believes that when professionals work together and communicate well with each other children and families benefit.

Following Carolyn’s work on ResearchGate.

Whole Class Ensemble Teaching report

Musicmark logo

The CSPACE music education research team has recently completed a nationally significant report commissioned by MusicMark, the membership organisation that represents music education hubs in England, and funded by Arts Council England. The report, authored by Professor Martin Fautley, Dr Victoria Kinsella, and Dr Adam Whittaker, offers one of the most comprehensive studies to date of the provision of Whole Class Ensemble Teaching (WCET). WCET, also known as ‘Wider Opportunities’ or ‘First Access’, sees children learn a musical instrument in a large group setting, usually with the rest of their school class and most often in KS2. The report, based upon a nationwide survey and in-depth interviews with more than 20 music education hub leaders, was launched on Friday 24th November at the annual MusicMark conference. The report, executive summary, and key messages documents can be accessed here.

Conference report: CSPACE Conference 2017

On the 10th July 2017 the third annual CSPACE education conference took place at Perry Barr campus of BCU. The conference was a great success and it was wonderful to see so many engaging and exciting research contributions from colleagues from across the university. The conference was entitled ‘Connecting Communities: Spaces for Creativity and Collaboration in Education’ and presentations covered a diverse range of themes related to this.

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The conference kicked off with a keynote from Laura Watts, Simbi Folarin and Liz Garnham (MBE) who run Dens of Equality, a not for profit community organisation which is focused on creating inclusive community play leisure and learning opportunities for disabled and disadvantaged children across Birmingham. Laura, Simbi and Liz discussed the strengths and challenges of working at a grassroots level engaging in community capacity building and embedding local partnership against a landscape where play work remains consistently undervalued. Conference delegates gave lots of positive feedback about the keynote and the inspirational work Laura and colleagues are doing with access to extremely limited funding and resources.

Presentations covered a wide range of topics at the conference, from the use of touchscreen technology in the early years to the importance of multi-agency working for young people’s creative musical engagement and lots in between!  It was fascinating to see the work that colleagues are engaging in across the university and was great to see such a wide representation from both experienced academic staff and newer researchers and post-graduate students. Given the conference themes of community, creativity and collaboration it was important that students were included within this and so we were thrilled to include undergraduate student researcher awards for the first time.

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There was also a great range of hour-long workshops on offer at the conference, including a symposium on improving learning and teaching in Higher Education through collaborative observation, a workshop on rhythm analysis and a performative ‘armchair discussion’ on practitioner inquiry into research supervision. During lunch delegates had the opportunity to view the impressive posters offered by colleagues and vote for their favourite one.

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As first-year PhD students organising the conference was a steep learning curve! Each of us also presented at the conference and although we were all incredibly nervous it was wonderful to be able to share our work in its initial stages surrounded by supportive peers. The conference offered a real climate of collaboration and the questions and comments posed by colleagues were extremely useful in extending our thinking around our research.

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It was also great to get to meet so many colleagues from across HELS and the wider university and we all agreed organising the conference really helped us to feel embedded into the community of BCU. It was also great to see some really positive comments on twitter from conference delegates, search #cspaceconf17 to relive some of the best moments of the day. We hope that you all enjoyed it as much as we did and are looking forward to #CSPACECONF18!

Bethany Sumner, Emma Nenadic, Bally Kaur, and Gail Kuppan
CSPACE Conference 2017 Committee

 

 

Research Snapshot: Communicative musicality – sounds rhythms and pulses in music and language

Researcherspno

Dr Carolyn Blackburn, Research Fellow in Early Childhood Studies, and Ian Axtell, Subject Leader for Music Education, Centre for Research in Education.

Findings

Participants in this study appeared to recognise the value and importance of children’s spontaneous musical activities and to encourage it describing the benefit for children’s holistic development and the role of music in attachment and bonding. However, they also appear to have identified benefits for children in attending organised, structured musical activities both within the home, but more substantially outside the home.

Recommendations
  • It is recommended that parents and carers are offered guidance and advice about the importance of acknowledging and valuing young children’s spontaneous musical activities in the home. It is a matter of concern that parents might lack confidence to instigate and encourage young children’s musical activities in the home;
  • It is recommended that an online database of trialled and validated musical resources be made available for parents and carers to use in the home;
  • It is recommended that this study is extended to include particular groups of children and families such as minority ethnic groups and children with disabilities;
  • It is recommended that a study to explore young children’s musical activities in early years settings be conducted to explore the understanding and practices of early childhood practitioners given the importance of young children’s spontaneous musical activities in their overall and holistic development as noted from the literature review in this report.

 

Download the full report here: communicative-musicality-report-130987955021412745

Research Snapshot: Kirsty Devaney

Kirsty’s research is investigating how the assessment of composing in UK secondary school examinations is impacting the teaching and learning of composing within schools.

Research Snapshot: Listen Imagine Compose

ResearchersLIC

Martin Fautley (Birmingham City University), Pam Burnard and John Finney (Cambridge University), Pauline Adams (Institute of Education), Jonathan Savage (Manchester Metropolitan University).

Research aims
  • How can composers and teachers be supported to work most effectively together?
  • How do professional composers make judgements about the quality of compositions and what are the indicators of progression? What correlation is there between these criteria and those of exam boards?
  • What does creative progression look like – for example the difference between a Year 7 and a Year 9 composition – and how can we ensure progression within the secondary curriculum, particularly given the genre-based approach?
  • What are the challenges around assessing creativity and how can students be supported to take risks, fail and experiment in a system where assessment is central?

To read more go to: http://www.bcu.ac.uk/research/stories/listen-imagine-compose

To read full REF report download the pdf: Birmingham City University – 25 – Creativity in Education

Research Snapshot: Youth Music, Exchanging Notes

ResearchersScreen shot 2015-01-28 at 23.15.15

Martin Fautley, Professor of Education, Victoria Kinsella, Research Fellow in Education (Creativity), Phil Taylor, MA Education and Masters in Teaching and Learning Course Director, Jane O’Connor, Reader in Childhood Studies

Background

The National Foundation for Youth Music has awarded grants to support 10 Exchanging Notes projects across England. Each project (a partnership between a school and specialist music provider) works with young people at risk of low attainment, disengagement, or educational exclusion to see how participation in regular music-making activities can enable achievement of musical, educational and wider outcomes. Researchers in the School of Education are supporting the project over a four-year period through the evaluation of the educational and musical outcomes of these new models.

Aim of research

This project aims to:

  • See how participation in regular music-making activities can enable achievement of musical, educational and wider outcomes
  • Explore these benefits across a variety of different musical approaches and styles
  • Stimulate fresh thinking and support the aspirations set out in the National Plan for Music Education.

Read more here: http://www.bcu.ac.uk/research/stories/exchanging-notes

Meet the CSPACE Team – Ian Axtell

Name: Ian James AxtellAxtell_Ian_main

Role at BCU: Senior Lecturer and Subject Leader for Music Education

Research Interests:
Bourdieu inspired:
What is the Field of Music Education?
Is the Universe of Discourse in Music Education under threat?

Shulman inspired:
How can Signature Pedagogy in Music Education be defined?

Research you are currently working on: How can Signature Pedagogy in Music Education be defined?

Research methodologies you are using: Humanistic and interpretivist phenomenography underpinned by Bourdieu’s perception of epistemic reflexivity.

Current issues, thoughts and reflections on education & research: This is a fascinating time to be involved in education research since we are in an anti-intellectual turn in education policy discourse. There is an urgent need for genuine critical education research. The place of theory in education has been questioned but education research is responded by creating strong links between theory and practice through critical practice-based enquiry. The question remains whether genuine critical education research can save the education system from collapse under the false gods of knowledge-led curricular and evidence based research (or research that proves what policy makers have already decided).

Most influential research you have read/seen: Bourdieu, P (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Advice for new researchers: Join a community of thinking.

Mini fact about you: I am passionate about music education for all and how music can change people’s perception of the world around them.

Time and Space for Music Education

Written by Ian Axtell, Subject Leader for Music Education, Secondary Partnership Coordinator.Axtell_Ian_main @IanAxtell

Ian Axtell reflects on the music curriculum and asks: ‘is time for music education in England going to disappear in schools?’

“Classroom music can instill the same sense of motivation and challenge if musical events are a regular part of the curriculum…Where music making is shared there is an opportunity to be positive, to recognise and value individual contributions and to promote meaningful thinking and learning. However, relying on the musical events themselves is not enough. Composing or performing do not just happen.  They quickly lose their value if pupils are not provided with the time and space to prepare. Regular recordings can provide a safety net and promote the opportunity reflect, adapt and improve music making prior to an event but time is needed for this to happen.”clock

“Personal experience suggests that the opportunity for children to experience the buzz of sharing a musical event or magical moment, particularly after their careful planning and preparation, is disappearing because music does not fit into the EBACC or STEM agendas…the emphasis from government is on a narrow perception of academic knowledge that prioritises certain subject domains at the expense of others.”

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Music is an academic subject but it is not just theoria, it is also techne and poiesis.   Music education goes beyond the academic because it brings together a variety of ways of thinking and doing.  It is cognitive but also psycho-motor and affective (Pierce & Gray, 2013).

“If schools are being measured through their engagement with the EBACC then will the time for all pupils to engage with active music making be reduced or even stopped entirely?  This appears to be already happening, particularly in the context of Key Stage 4.  If there is no Key Stage 4 music then what will happen to music at Key Stage 3 or Key Stage 2?”

Read the full article here: https://ianaxtell.wordpress.com/