Kirsty Devaney reflects on her Erasmus+ visit to the University of Wuppertal earlier this year.
On the 12th-14th May I was able to visit the beautiful location of University of Wuppertal in Germany as part of Erasmus+ :
This visit was part of an ongoing research relationship regarding composing in music education with lecturer Annette Ziegenmeyer.
Campaigning for Creativity and Composing
Unlike in England where composing in classroom plays a fundamental role in secondary education:
‘Considerably more time is spent on composing than other musical processes within a typical Key Stage 4 music classroom’ (Savage and Fautley, 2011: 142)
School composing in Germany is not a practice that is imbedded. Annette mentioned that the influence of the likes of John Paynter (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Paynter_(composer)) and other composer-educators, did not take place in Germany. Instead music lessons focus on the “replication” and “reproduction” of other music, rather than students creating their own music. Annette, who was a music teacher and composes herself, felt that this lack of creative music making was missing in music education and since started to campaign for composing in schools.
Earlier this academic year, Annette came to Birmingham to investigate how music education, and composing, is done in England:
I organised observations in a range of schools, including whole class instrumental lessons, to meet with music educators at the university and the Conservatoire, and to discuss her research to others in the BCU music education research community. She was keen that I come and visit her in Germany to see how music education differs and to share my thoughts and research to her colleagues and students.
During my short visit I was able to visit a secondary school and observe music taking place in the classroom. Unlike when Annette visited and she had asked to see composing taking place, Annette warned me that due to composing being so rare, it was unlikely I would be able to observe any composing. The lesson I observed focused on learning to play a popular song using instruments. The informal approach felt it had roots in the Musical Futures (https://www.musicalfutures.org/) movement: the students had selected the song, they worked in friendship groups and the teacher allowed them to just come into the lesson and start practicing and playing rather than outlining the key objectives. Although an interesting approach, students were not able to deviate away from what was being taught. Some of the boys, who were clearly disengaged playing pitched percussion, seemed to be bored playing straight crotchet beats and when they varied the rhythms were told they were getting in wrong.
I gave a lecture to trainee music teachers on composing, getting them to reflect on what composing means and how to support it in the classroom:
Annette had mentioned that the word “composing” was very rarely used, if at all in music education due to the historical connotations and “baggage” of the word. Discussions were engaging and thought provoking with one student asking if Ed Sheeran was a composer. It was clear that this more open and inclusive approach to composing being possible for all students, and being about making decisions and being creative was new to them. Similarly, perceptions and beliefs about composers were discussed in my PhD thesis, concluding that 3 main beliefs were present in students and teachers. These were the belief that the word “composer” worked only in relation to composing as:
What beliefs and perceptions are held by teachers regarding composing, composers and composing teaching?
Some of these questions have been asked in the England through research, but for Germany Annette felt this was a first. In conducting the survey we hope to be able to do a comparison study and present initial findings together at European and International conferences in the future. Developing good practice and resources for music teachers is another main stage for Annette and her team. Overall there was a sense that there was a huge amount of work to be done to promote composing as an inclusive and beneficial aspect of a well rounded and creative musical education, but both Annette and others on her team seem passionate and being at the start of this creative revolution is a very exciting position to be in!
Fautley, M. and Savage, J. (2011b) ‘The organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4 in English secondary schools’, British Journal of Music Education, 28(2), pp. 135-157.
In this post, Adam Whittaker reflects on two talks that he gave at Royal Birmingham Conservatoire. He explores the intersections of two areas rarely considered in the same breath, and draws attention to the ways in which they can speak to each other.
In early October, I was fortunate enough to be invited to present at the first public research seminar at the Royal Birmingham Conservatoire. In a break from the usual format of 60 minutes plus discussion, I was asked to present two shorter papers drawing on my work in historical musicology and music education. This was an interesting opportunity to highlight the ways in which these two disciplines, traditionally separated along methodological and cultural lines (and REF units!), could interface with each other. The event was well attended and the discussion was certainly lively!
Most music education research in recent times has, quite understandably, been focused on performance and composition. Aspects of contextual study, arguably the seeds of historical musicology in the curriculum, have received much less attention. In my first presentation, I shared some of my developing work on set works in A-level music examinations, problematizing the relative similarity with examinations from the 1950s. I argued that the continued dominance of classical music within A-level music has a potentially damaging effect upon the relevance and inclusivity of this qualification, building on Robert Legg’s 2012 work in this area.
In highlighting the points of similarity, and a few small points of divergence, it is clear that female composers are still significantly underrepresented in this area of study, being confined to a marginalised status that misrepresents their presence in world leading music festivals. Following this line of inquiry, it became clear that significant areas of our diverse musical culture had been reduced to a relatively fusty selection of set works that differ little from those set by examiners working in the 1950s. What are the implications of this lack of change? How can we possibly expect students to see A-level music study as relating to their own musical experiences when it barely resembles the experiences of the concert-going public? I concluded that such a narrow definition of set work study is sabotaging the ability of the classical music sector to attract students from outside of the socio-economic groups associated with white, middle-class privilege. Such an intentional provocation sparked a lively discussion, leading to a detailed and constructive email exchange with an audience member that went on for many days after the talk.
Immediately following this talk, and donning my historical musicologist hat, I moved to my second presentation, reprising and developing some of my research on the musical examples of Johannes Tinctoris: see Whittaker (2017) and image (above). Tinctoris is the best-known music theorist of the fifteenth-century, occupying an almost unrivalled status in modern scholarship as a leader in his field. His nine notational treatises contain over 600 musical examples, exceeding the standard practices of the time. He was also the royal music teacher at the court of Naples in the 1470s, and was clearly a widely-respected musical authority, with other writers continuing to reference his theories decades after his death. His texts are important witnesses to the musical practices of the fifteenth-century, and offer a unique insight into the pedagogical logics which underpinned the way that music was theorised and, by implication, taught to aspiring musicians. They, in turn, offer some examples of pieces that musicians should study in order to understand good compositional style and technique.
For example, Tinctoris extolls the virtue of some of compositional masters of his own age, praising the skills of composers such as Guillaume Du Fay, Antoine Busnoys, and Johannes Ockeghem. Not afraid to pick a fight, however, Tinctoris also heavily criticises these same composers for practices that he deemed to be transgressions of theoretical propriety. He doesn’t mince his words either, describing some of these errors as ‘intolerable’ and ‘inexcusable’. All this, however, is in the spirit of musical appraisal, offering detailed insights into the practices displayed by composers across an age.
It is this theme which unites the two papers, exploring the pedagogical logics which underpin our approaches to the study of music, whether based on repertoire studies in the set work model, or to think deeply about the heritage of musical pedagogies. I hope to continue to draw together my musicological and music education research to bring fresh perspectives to music education, construed in its broadest sense, both in terms of setting, historical period, and age range. Such complementary perspectives can indeed speak to each other in interesting ways!
References (if applicable):
Legg, R. (2012). Bach, Beethoven, Bourdieu: ‘cultural capital’ and the scholastic canon in England’s A-level examinations. The Curriculum Journal, 23(2), 157-172
Whittaker, A. (2017). Signposting Mutation in some Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century Music Theory Treatises. Plainsong & Medieval Music, 26(1), 37-61.
Short bio: Adam Whittaker is a research assistant working across the music education research projects in CSPACE. His work has been published in leading journals and he has co-authored a number of national evaluation reports, including two commissioned by Arts Council England and Music Mark. He also cofounded the Representations of Early Music in Stage and Screen Study Group, which is soon to have its first book published by Routledge in early 2018. Alongside his scholarly work, he is also active as a musician and is currently musical director of the Stafford Orchestra.
The CSPACE music education research team has recently completed a nationally significant report commissioned by MusicMark, the membership organisation that represents music education hubs in England, and funded by Arts Council England. The report, authored by Professor Martin Fautley, Dr Victoria Kinsella, and Dr Adam Whittaker, offers one of the most comprehensive studies to date of the provision of Whole Class Ensemble Teaching (WCET). WCET, also known as ‘Wider Opportunities’ or ‘First Access’, sees children learn a musical instrument in a large group setting, usually with the rest of their school class and most often in KS2. The report, based upon a nationwide survey and in-depth interviews with more than 20 music education hub leaders, was launched on Friday 24th November at the annual MusicMark conference. The report, executive summary, and key messages documents can be accessed here.
Role at BCU: Research Assistant in Music Education
Music Pedagogy (both current and historical)
Historical models of intellectual thought
Musical applications of rhetoric
Music in media as educational tool
Assessment in Music Education
Research you are currently working on:
Historical uses of musical examples, particularly in fifteenth-century manuscripts
Practical music examinations
Reception history of Early Music as an educational tool
Music assessment in schools
Research methodologies you are using: As I come from a background in musicology, my research methodologies centre on the examination of objects as texts, reading not only the contents of the page but also what the page itself can tell you. There are so many things that we have missed over the years by being preoccupied with what texts tell us and not considered how they tell us nearly enough. The development of this type of approach in my PhD has extended to my other areas of research activity, seeking to recontextualise information in a way that casts new light on its primary contents.
Current issues, thoughts and reflections on education & research: The ways in which we perceive research in education is changing. My work considers ways in which older historical models might have applicability in this context of change, and how these can develop skills and knowledge in untapped ways. I’m looking forward to thinking about this a lot more and developing innovative ways of delivering historical content for the skills agenda.
Most influential research you have read/seen: The work of Ron Woodley, Margaret Bent, Bonnie Blackburn and Rob Wegman, to name a few, was highly influential on my work in musicology. Joseph Dyer’s work on the place of music within historical university models sparked my interest in historical models of intellectual thought. These led me to models of pedagogy and, ultimately, to CSPACE!
Advice for new researchers: Time spent away from the desk can help bring things into focus. Take in some air and listen to the birdsong! There’s no substitute for hard work but being glued to the desk is not always the best thing!
Mini fact about you: When I’m not reading about/playing/listening to music, I like to watch motorsport!
‘Looking for the unexpected – Creativity and Innovation in Music Education’
On March 16th-19th a team of BCU music educators & researchers flew all the way to Lithuania to attend the European Association of Music in Schools (EAS). The title of the conference was ‘Looking for the Unexpected – Creativity and innovation in music education’, a hot topic for us in the UK with the uncertainty of creative subjects within schools due to the impending EBacc and forced acadamisation knocking at the door.
So Prof. Martin Fautley, Dr. Victoria Kinsella, fellow PhD student Samantha Clements, and I packed our warm winter clothes to prepare for snow and produced our presentations about our own research into creativity in music education. Director of learning and participation at Birmingham Contemporary Music Group Nancy Evans also joined us at the conference to present alongside Victoria and Martin on their action research project with ‘Music Maze’.
How is ‘creativity’ defined in other countries?
The conference kicked off with a keynote from Pamela Burnard talking about ‘diverse musical creativities’, an interesting terminology. In her keynote, Burnard discussed the links between ‘real world practice and industry’ and what is happening within schools and out of school. She also mentioned important aspects of being creative including risk taking, autonomy and enjoyment. Burnard explores musical creativity further in her book ‘Musical Creativities in Practice’ and talks about how some may view musical creativity as:
‘a particular type of practice, perhaps that of the Great Composers, rather than to multiple possibilities’ (p.7, 2012).
There were many incredibly polished vocal performances during the conference covering vast amounts of repertoire, including a lot of traditional Lithuanian folk music. Burnard asked if one of the performances that morning was ‘creative’. Many automatically nodded and said yes. It was a striking piece of musical theatre, they varied how they used the space on the stage and use of props, and the combination between traditional folk music with modern day themes was striking. The students were engaged throughout and the experience was immersive. However, had the students been creative? There is no way of telling just from the performance. Creativity is a process (Wallas, 1926) and we could not know if the students had co-created the piece, made decisions, rejected ideas, improvised, or if they had just followed a strict set of orders from the choreographer or music leader. How did the audience define creativity? What made a ‘creative performance’?
Wallas: 4 stages of the creative process
Whilst attending other presentations I was surprised by the diversity of practice happening in Europe, differences in what they valued in music education and how they defined ‘creativity’ in practice.
Is composing inherently creative?
My own research focuses on composing within schools and I have witnessed many music educators that believe composing is inherently creative because it is ‘creating something new’. However in practice composing can be a very uncreative activity, guided by stylistic rules, criteria driven direction. The assessment can lead to creating pieces of music with a set number of techniques thus creating very ‘unmusical’ works – a kind of ‘composing by numbers’. The three aspects Burnard spoke about in the keynote (risk taking, autonomy and enjoyment) are not always found when students are composing in the classroom or for exams. In other presentations focusing on composing there were interesting approaches to how people approached teaching composing. This made me consider the ‘skills vs creative’ debate:
Should you learn the ‘rules’ first before you can break them?
In one particular presentation the teacher had developed a step-by-step approach to teaching melody writing with young recorder players. The music was rooted in folk tradition but focused on limiting the students’ choice in pitch and using grids to develop a rhythmic pattern. It was also based in western classical notation. The presenter commented that it was a way for students to learn about specific folk music traditions and techniques as well as improving notation reading. His approach to introducing composing to young students was quite radically different to my own but there were some similarities in that we both were aiming to introduce stages and steps for students. For me, instead of choosing which of the two pitches to use I ask students to decide when there should be sound and when there should be silence, referring back to John Cage’s quote:
‘The material of music is sound and silence integrating these is composing’ (1949)
We would then move onto the next step asking them for either high and low, or loud or quiet sounds. For this teacher it would be the next pitch or rhythm. I would initially see my own approach as more ‘creative’ but on reflection we were both still asking our students to make a decision and go along a process, but it was framed very differently. This leads back to one of the fundamental questions of ‘how DO we teach composing?’ Both of our approaches in rooted in a cultural and musical background, and we are both limiting students decisions initially, however one was focused on melody and the other on timbre and texture.
An aspect of composing that was present in this presentation, and one that I see regularly in the UK, was an obsession around pitch as a starting pointfor composing. Why is it that deciding on what key a piece of music should be, or what pitch to start with, the most important thing for music? Why not the title, the mood, the structure, the timbral quality of the instruments, the way it looks when performed, the rhythmic quality or the ‘feel’. I am not suggesting every young musician or teacher starts with pitch when composing but it seems more common than other areas of music. This focus on pitch may also impact on what a young person might think composing is about – I remember telling myself at the age of 16:
‘once I know how to do harmony, I will be able to compose’
For a start that phrase doesn’t even make sense, but I felt at that time there were inherent rules that I just needed to learn in order to be a composer. The more rules I learnt, the better I would be. But who dictates these rules – Society? Examination boards? Culture? The teacher? In music and composing there are rules we can learn, but the act of being creative is deciding how and when to use them, when to not use them, and when to change them, do something new and make them our own.
Reflections on my presentation:
On the 3rd day I gave my presentation titled: ‘Loosing Faith in the System: The implications of inconsistent marking, of AS and A level composing, on creativity.’ My talk used the results collected from my KS5 composing survey on teachers’ experiences of marking in A level. Results from 71 teachers found that over 90% of them had been surprised by an examination grade and many did not feel confident with predicting grades. The first aspect of my presentation involved delegates looking through the raw data from the survey and talking about what they felt the data told them. I enjoyed this aspect of my talk as it allowed them to ask questions and open up a dialogue with the audience early on in the presentation. It engaged them in the research from the start. I was also keen to see how other researchers in the audience would react to the data; one even commented saying how the research was ‘gold dust’ and examination boards would be very keen to see the full research.
In addition to the qualitative data, my research used the free text answers on the survey and 9 telephone interviews. In this section of the presentation I presented some emerging themes into what impact inconstant making has in the school:
1) Downward Spiral:
This is when, due to unexpected poor grades, teachers restrict what students can compose so that it is closer to the marking criteria. However as a result of trying to second-guess the exam board requirements the students do not enjoy the experience as much and therefore do less well in the exam.
2) Trail of interpretation:
As mentioned before, there is a danger of trying to second-guess what the exam board of examiner wants to see in the composition. As a result a trail of interpretation of what people think ‘good’ composing looks and sounds like is developed, leaving the student at the end of this line trying to compose what they think others want.
3) Ripple effect:
The final emerging theme is this idea of a ‘ripple effect’ – that inconsistent marking has an impact on the teacher’s confidence, which effects their teaching of composing (potentially limiting creativity), which in turn effects the students’ learning and experience of composing. The wider implications are that students decide not to take music as a subject at this level which endangers music as a subject in the school and therefore threatens jobs. At the end of this it could have a negative impact on the music industry in the UK as a whole.
I enjoyed presenting my early findings at EAS. It has given me confidence to present at future conferences including ISME and BERA, and practice into how to present to a wider audience from across Europe where there are diverse practices in music education.
BCU team presentations overviews:
The BCU team covered a wide range of topics at the conference. Martin Fautley focused on creativity within lower secondary schools. His results from a survey of over 100 secondary music teachers from Birmingham and London found that assessment was based on matching school expectations of predicted grades. It was also noted that that assessment was reducing creative opportunities in the classroom.
Samantha Clements presented her PhD research methodology involving gaming software as a tool for critical incident charting. This experimental way of collecting data was used in her pilot study with 4 trainee music teachers. She asked them to create ‘fantasy worlds’ which charted each of their ‘critical incidents’ in their life influencing their aptitude for different aspects of music education.
Victoria Kinsella has been working alongside ‘The National Foundations for Youth Music’ on their ‘Exchanging Notes’ projects across England. Victoria reported, from the first year findings, on the importance of multi-agency working for increased creative engagement and intrinsic motivation of young people.
On the final morning Nancy Evans from BCMG, Martin and Victoria presented research from an action research project with BCMG’s composing group ‘music maze’ from 8-11 year olds. The research focused on how the students responded to open-ended composing tasks. Some of the finding included that the children’s starting points were very diverse, and the way they composed and how much adult support and scaffolding was needed, varied.
We all enjoyed attending the conference as it helped stimulated discussions and debates with each other and with other delegates from outside the UK. Lithuania has a rich musical and cultural background and a country none of us had thought to visit before but would be excited to go back to.
Research methodologies you are using: The research and evaluation projects consists of a mixed method research design which involves both qualitative and quantitative methods allowing a wide range of data to be collected. This enables the resulting research and evaluation to be as valid and reliable as possible. Engaging in the complex teaching and learning environment requires not just one way of knowing but methods that take into account diversity and difference.
Current issues, thoughts and reflections on education & research: In England, the development of creativity in education is in a state of flux. The omission of the arts from the English Baccalaureate and challenges posed by school assessment and performativity measures can be viewed as indicative of discrimination against creative and cultural forms of intelligence.
Most influential research you have read/seen: Engeström’s (1999) activity theory has been most influential for my research. It provides an ideal framework through which a more holistic view of learning is possible. It accounts for different identities, intelligences, modes of learning, and pedagogical processes.
Engeström, Y. (1999) Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Engeström, Y. Miettinen, R. & Punamäki R. L. (Eds) Perspectives on activity theory .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 19-38.
Advice for new researchers: To talk about your work with your peers. I found casual discussions with colleagues often illuminated something about my work that I had not previously considered. This was most effective whilst drinking coffee!
Mini fact about you: I love going to rock concerts!